1) Violence is a deliberate behavior that usually causes physical or psychological damage to others. Violence seeks to IMPOSE or OBTAIN something by force.
2) The family is a social group based on ties of consanguinity or the establishment of a socially recognized link.
Then the violence INTRAFAMILIAR refers to all those acts of aggression committed by any member of the family against another and that is intended to cause damage to their life, body, emotional integrity, freedom or heritage .
According to an investigation carried out by the Youth Integration Center ( Organization of the Ministry of Health ) violence has various manifestations, such as:
- Physical : Probably the most we can identify, since it encompasses everything that is physical damage , that is, kicks, punches, scratches, etc.
- Verbal : Less recognized and includes insults, shouts, phrases of contempt and humiliation, among others,
- Psychological: Constituted by emotional blackmail, feelings of guilt, threats, intimidation, etc.
- By omission: It is constituted by the lack of care or the total abandonment of a member of the family in a situation of vulnerability.
It is known that in Mexico , in at least three out of ten households, one of its members is a victim of family violence (in 85% of the cases, the aggressor is the head of the family, 12% the mother and 3% other members of the family including uncles, grandparents, cousins and more).
In the case of violence towards children, there is a relationship of vulnerability, since infants show less resources and capacity to defend themselves than those of an adult. In this sense, the risk would be greater because it is an individual in development . In addition, the emotional damage and short-term and long-term effects of abuse must be considered.
Sometimes, the aggressors are beaters who were mistreated in their own childhood who have low self-esteem, do not control their impulses or simply do not know how to express their affection.
It can also be considered that many parents consider “just” the punishments implemented or perceive the disproportion of the punishment offered with the supposed fault committed but it justifies it in some way (due to poverty , stress , nerves, etc.). It is considerable that the same battering adults usually manifest and perceive that they have beaten their children on much fewer occasions than they actually do, that is, if they hit the child five times a week, they only feel that they beat him twice in that week.
According to WALKER’S THEORY OF RELATIONS, in intrafamily violence there are two types of relationships in which there are different forms of violence:
- Symmetric relationship: It manifests as hits and reciprocal aggressions,
- Complementary relationship: Violence occurs as punishment.
These sequences of violent interaction are often repetitive, almost stereotyped, so a kind of implicit contract is proposed among the participants, that is, “do what I tell you and I will not hit you”. Where the consequences that create can be of two types:
- Internalization behaviors:
Sadness, isolation, somatic complaints (such as gallstones, heart discomfort, etc.), fear, anxiety.
- Exteriorization behaviors:
Aggression, cruelty, defiance of authority , destructiveness.
When applying these consequences to the school life of the infant, we have as a result: ” Disorder of school relationships” which includes a failure in school, bad relationship with peers, no participation in sports or extracurricular activities.